Welcome

Welcome to the new IAMM Online International Abstracts Website! Here you’ll be able to find all the abstracts from the upcoming issues of our Journal as well as getting to know our great translators team.

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Our Team

Get to know our translators

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French Translator: Stéphane Guétin, PhD

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Since 1999, Stéphane Guétin, a music therapist who holds a PhD in Clinical Psychology, has been focusing his efforts on evaluating the benefits of music therapy by conducting numerous clinical research studies that have been presented at international congresses and published in international journals.  In partnership with Montpellier University Hospital (INSERM U1061), MUSIC CARE has developed innovative music therapy and music intervention solutions that can effectively relieve pain, anxiety and depression in hospitalized patients.

 

 

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German Translator: Monika Nöcker-Ribaupierre, Dr.sc.mus.

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Monika Nöcker-Ribaupierre  has over 20 years of clinical experience, working in NICU, with developmentally delayed and multiply disabled children. Currently, her primary focus is auditory stimulation after premature birth. Prior to this, Monika was chair of the postgraduate music therapy training program at Freies Musikzentrum Munich e.V. and Vice President of the European Music Therapy Confederation. She is Vice-President of the International Society of Music in Medicine and serves on the scientific board of “Musiktherapeutische Umschau”, Bundesverband ”das frühgeborene Kind” e.V. and the Editorial Board of the interdisciplinary journal Music and Medicine. She has published a number of books, book chapters and articles.

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Japanese Translator: Dr.Kana Okazaki-Sakaue, D.A, MT-BC, NRMT, ARAM

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Kana is a music therapist trained both in UK and USA. She studied piano at the Royal
Academy of Music, London, England and was trained at the Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy Centre in London. She also obtained Master’s and Doctorate degree in Music Therapy at New York University, USA. She is currently working as an Associate Professor at the Kobe university, Japan and also serving as a board member and the chair of International Committee of the Japanese Music Therapy Association. She has also been involved as a committee member of Accreditation and Certification Commission of the World Federation for Music Therapy. She has been active as the Advisor for Tohoku Music Therapy Project, supporting music therapy work for survivors after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, since 2011. Her current clinical work includes special education setting as well as experiential training for music therapists and trainees. She supervises music therapists and other related professionals such as psychologists and psychiatrists. Her specific research is about clinical improvisation.

Japanese translator: Aiko Onuma, MT-BC
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Aiko Onuma is a music therapist/educator who works in the greater Boston area as well as internationally. Aiko is currently the president of “Kakehashi” Music Therapy Connection Group and provides music therapy services and individualized music instruction for all ages and levels. She holds a Bachelor degree of Music Therapy from Berklee College of Music.
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Chinese Translator: Yi-Ying, MA, MT-BC

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Yi-Ying currently works at Taipei Medical University Hospital in Taiwan, serving multiple population in medical setting. She completed graduate studies at Montclair State University in the U.S. and was clinically trained in Beth Israel Medical Center.

 

 

 

 

 

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Korean Translator: Juri Yun, MT-DMtG, KCMT

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Juri Yun is a certified music therapist in Germany (DMtG) and S. Korea (KCMT). Ms. Yun received Diplom from Music Therapy Institute Berlin in Germany and completed doctoral coursework in Music Therapy from Ewha Womans University. Ms. Yun currently serves as the clinical supervisor at Ewha and a researcher for the Ewha Music Wellness Center. Her clinical expertise lies in working with adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders and children with special needs.

 

 

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Spanish Translator: Marcela Lichtensztejn

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Marcela Lichtensztejn is the Founding Director of APEM Vanguardia en Artes Aplicadas, Ciencia y Salud, interdisciplinary creative arts therapies and traditional therapies program, in Argentina. She is a music therapist, piano performer and music educator. Originally from Argentina, she gained her graduate degree in Music Therapy and her Advanced Certification in Nordoff-Robbins approach at New York University. Currently, Ms.Lichtensztejn is professor at the Argentinean Catholic University (UCA). Her areas of clinical and research expertise are adults with acquired and degenerative neurological conditions with emphasis in disorders of consciousness, cognitive impairment, speech and movement disorders, musicians, and family support. She is an editorial board member of both peer reviewed journals ‘Music and Medicine’ and ‘Revista Brasileira de Musicoterapia’. She has authored several publications amd speaks internationally on her developments. Ms. Lichtensztejn is the current Regional Liaison for Latin America for the World Federation of Music Therapy.

 

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Italian Translator: Andrea Coiro

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After studying electric bass for four years in Rome, IT, I was accepted to the Bass Collective in New York City where I completed a certificate program in multi-style performance. When I got back to Rome, my perspective on music shifted, however. I no longer considered music to be solely an aesthetic, external expression. There was something much more profound going on behind the notes and harmonies. I began to look more closely at the sound, rhythm, and vibration components of the music I was playing, the music that is all around us in nature, the music that our oI began to look more deliberately at the ways in which music can be used and applied to our daily life, and came across music therapy. This is how I chose to go back to school, to the Conservatorio Luisa D’Annunzio di Pescara, which, unfortunately for Italy’s sake, is one of the few programs in Italy currently teaching the techniques and practice of music therapy. When Director of WFMT, Amy Clement Cortez, paid a visit to our school in the summer of 2016, she shared with us the nature and findings from her widespread, international research. Recognizing that the field of research for music therapy is being conducted and reported at a much quicker rate in other continents—specifically North America, Asia, and other parts of Europe—she was looking for someone in the class to translate the scientific research documents and papers being produced around the world into the Italian language. I am honored to hold this role, contributing to the translation of critical research, so the most effective methods and practices of music therapy can be shared and cultivated in my home country as they are around the globe.

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Russian translator: Alisa T. Apreleva-Kolomeytseva, MT-BC, NMT, SBDapreleva cello look (1).jpg

 Alisa is a Russian-born, USA-trained music therapist and language specialist. She is the founding director of open educative initiative MuzTerapevt.Ru to advocate for evidence-based music therapy in Russia (est. 2013), author of the textbook on therapeutic applications of music for volunteer musicians, educator and supervisor. As an international advisor for ALS Foundation “Live Now”, her clinical experience includes working with ALS patients and their families, as well as developing treatment protocols. She previously served as a student clinical training supervisor (medical, psychiatric and special education practica) at Berklee College of Music (Boston, USA). Her research interests include therapeutic applications of singing voice, medical ethnomusicology, music culture diversity, neuro-rehabilitation, and palliative care.

 

International Abstracts

Music and Medicine
Volume 10, no.3, July 2018

Trauma-informed Care in the NICU – Implications for Parents and Staff
Mary Coughlin McNeil
Abstract

Neonatal intensive care has dramatically improved the survival of the tiniest infants born at the cusp of viability in addition to meeting the medical and surgical needs of infants born with an array of conditions that pose a life threat to the newborn.  Despite advances in technology, however, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) survivors experience a myriad of physical, behavioral and developmental challenges once they are discharged. Most recently a trauma-informed care paradigm for neonatal intensive care has been introduced to mitigate and minimize many post NICU infant morbidities. It is clear, that trauma-informed care makes sense for the infant who finds them self in a life-threatening situation at birth, however, the implications for this paradigm extend beyond the infant.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of a trauma-informed paradigm in the NICU for parents and clinicians.

An Interview with Janina Fisher PhD: Perspectives on Trauma Theory and Treatment
Andrew Rossetti MMT, LCAT, MT-BC & Marija Pranjic
Abstract

Janina Fisher PhD has collaborated with many of the pillars in the field of trauma theory and treatment – including Judith Herman, Bessel van der Kolk, and Pat Ogden – and she is a pioneering force and innovator in her own right. A prominent clinician and consultant, Dr. Fisher is a licensed clinical psychologist and instructor at the Trauma Center, an outpatient clinic and research center founded by Bessel van der Kolk. The opportunity to interview Dr. Fisher stemmed from her participation in the conference Trauma Theory & Treatment: Somatosensorial Implications of Resilience, hosted by the Louis Armstrong Center for Music & Medicine at Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. The conference lectures included mental healthcare professionals ranging from a broad spectrum of disciplines, with a strong showing of music therapists with specialties in trauma treatment with diverse populations. As conference co-chair I took the opportunity to interview Dr. Fisher, who graciously agreed to sit down with me and answer some questions. As a music psychotherapist whose work centers on pre-emptive strategies in fragile hospital populations such as newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving radiation therapy, her in-depth and thoughtful responses to my probing questions offered unique insight.  At various junctures, I provide some commentary to contextualize some of the salient themes. Her comments expand upon the growth and ‘interdisciplinarization’ of the evolving field of trauma. We are indeed fortunate to have her share her knowledge and expertise on its inner workings and perspectives within these pages. The following is a candid exchange in which Dr. Fisher provides insight not only on her ideas on the neurobiological nature of trauma, but also how musical concepts, and her own musical training in her youth informs her clinical approach in working with victims of emotional trauma. I am grateful to Marija Pranjic for transcribing the interview. (Joanne Loewy)

All Roads Lead To Where I Stand: A Veteran Case Review
Kristen Stewart
Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to illustrate individualized clinical practice in music therapy as part of treatment programming for veterans with PTSD. Multidimensional aspects of treatment are referenced through an integrative and multi-modal approach to highlight the coordination of processes in meeting veteran needs and goals. The incorporation of Somatic Experiencing® techniques will also be highlighted as a means of promoting stabilization and developing resiliency by increasing awareness of sensate experience to help resolve fixated physiologic states due to traumatic stress. Current trauma models will be reviewed to help explore additional needs for growth in music therapy practice in the treatment of veterans coping with trauma.

Keywords: trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, integral psychology, felt sense, Somatic Experiencing

Listening to Music Improves Language Skills in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine
Stephen W. Porges et al.
Abstract:The effectiveness of listening to music, as an intervention to improve language skills, was tested with young children prenatally exposed to cocaine. In addition to the prenatal exposure to cocaine, these children often share family experiences such as substance abuse, poverty, and mental illness that are prevalent in chronically stressed families in which abuse and trauma are likely to occur. In the current study 62 children, between the ages of 17 and 30 months, who were receiving a center-based intervention program, participated in a 16-week music-based trial. The trial consisted of listening to music 5 days a week for 16 weeks.  During the first week music listening sessions were 50-minutes and during the subsequent 15 weeks the daily listening sessions were 10 minutes. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a filtered music group that listened to vocal music filtered to emphasize frequencies within the bandwidth of spontaneous human speech, an unfiltered music group that listened to the same vocal music in its original unaltered form, and a control group that only received the standard early intervention services provided by the preschool. Outcomes were evaluated with assessments for expressive and receptive language skills. Results document that children, who listened to either the filtered or unaltered music, showed greater gains on language skills than the control group.  The findings suggest that providing scheduled times to listen to vocal music similar to a mother singing a lullaby would provide a simple cost-effective language intervention.
Keywords: language skills; music therapy; prenatal cocaine exposure; children; Polyvagal Theory.

Trauma, Disability and the Development of the “Wounded Healer” Identity: A Music Therapist’s Personal Perspective
David Abbott
Abstract
A medical memoir addressing the author’s history of trauma, limb loss, use of music as a resource, and how these experiences shaped his pursuit of education and career in music therapy.  The significant influence of Jung’s “wounded healer” concept (particularly as elucidated by Kirmayer) on the development of the author’s identity as a clinician with a history of trauma is discussed. The importance of addressing the needs of wounded clinicians, and the risks and benefits of disclosure, are explored.
Keywords: trauma, wounded healer, countertransference, limb loss

Weaving Words and Music: Healing from Trauma for People with Serious Mental Illness
Gillian Stephens Langdon
Abstract
This paper will present the development of music verbal trauma groups for people with serious mental illness. The work grew out the collaboration of an interdisciplinary trauma committee in an urban mental health center.  Recognizing the high rates of childhood trauma histories in this population members of the committee recognized the importance of including music and creative arts in the treatment of complex trauma. We will outline the interdisciplinary collaboration and the structure of the groups. Elements of music as tools in trauma treatment are described along with using words to identify specific problems and solutions. Examples of our clinical work will be shared from this interweaving of words and music. Brief vignettes will demonstrate survivors’ journeys as they begin to identify and create safety, build healthy relationships, and maintain equilibrium while facing the challenges of their past traumatic experiences.

Moral Injury and Music Therapy: Music as a vehicle for access
Torrey Gimpel
Abstract
Moral Injury as a construct continues to be explored and refined as researchers develop models of treatment and clearer definitions for diagnosis. The complexity of moral injury mirrors the complexity of the combat experience- distinctive situations where required actions (e.g., killing) within war may lead to transgressions of deeply held moral or ethical principles within the individual. These transgressive acts may lead to inner conflicts that are outside the typical purview of traditional PTSD treatment. Music therapy offers a unique vehicle for access to the inner conflict of MI and combat-related traumatic experiences while promoting expression, present-moment support, and creating opportunities for new perspectives through the malleable medium of music.
Keywords: Moral Injury (MI); Military; Music Therapy; PTSD, Transgressive events/acts

 

Music and Medicine
Volume 10, no.2, April 2018

Relaxation Effects of Musically Guided Resonance Breathing:
A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Abstract
Music therapy and resonance breathing (breathing at about 0.1 Hz) may be effective in treating stress-related symptoms and promoting relaxation. However, no identified study has explicitly explored the potential of integrating the working mechanisms into a combined approach using live played music to guide respiration. Therefore, the objective of the present pilot study was to evaluate the psychophysiological effects of a combined intervention. A total of 60 healthy adults were randomized to either the experimental group or the control group (where participants listened to prerecorded relaxation music). Heart rate and heart rate variability were extracted for the following 5-minute segments: Resting baseline, stress task, intervention, resting post-intervention. Additionally, self-evaluation scores for relaxation and general well-being were assessed with visual analogue scales. Significant time × group interaction effects were found for general well-being (p = .028) and heart rate variability as measured by RMSSD (p < .001), indicative of increased parasympathetic outflow in the experimental group. In conclusion, the combination of music therapy and resonance breathing seems to be a well-received and effective way to induce relaxation and well-being in healthy adults.
Keywords: Music Therapy, Heart Rate Variability, Relaxation, Respiration

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Efectos de Relajación en Respiración Resonante Guiada con Música: estudio piloto controlado aleatorio

Resumen:
La Musicoterapia y la respiración resonante (respiración en 0.1 HZ) puede ser efectiva en el tratamiento de síntomas relacionados al stress y promover la relajación. Sin embargo, ningún estudio identificado ha explorado explícitamente el potencial de integrar los mecanismos de trabajo en un abordaje combinado utilizando música en vivo para guiar la respiración. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos psicofisiológicos de esta intervención combinada. Un total de 60 adultos saludables fueron aleatoriamente dispuestos en un grupo experimental o en un grupo control (donde los participantes escucharon música relajante pregrabada). La frecuencia cardíaca y la variabilidad de esta frecuencia fueron tomadas de los siguientes períodos de 5 minutos; línea de base en reposo, tarea de stress, intervención, descanso post intervención. Además, se realizaron puntuaciones de autoevaluación para la relajación y el bienestar general utilizando escalas viso-analógicas. Se encontraron efectos significativos de interacción de tiempo x grupo para el bienestar general (p=.038) y la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca medida por RMSSD (p=<.001) indicativo de un aumento del flujo parasimpático en el grupo experimental.  En conclusión, la combinación de musicoterapia y respiración resonante parece ser una forma eficaz y que es bien recibida para inducir la relajación y el bienestar en adultos sanos.
Palabras clave: Musicoterapia, Variabilidad de frecuencia cardíaca, Relajación, Respiración

German
Entspannungseffekte musikalisch geleiteter Resonanzatmung: eine randomisiert kontrollierte Pilotstudie

Musiktherapie und Resonanzatmung (Atmen mit etwa 0.1 Hz) könnte  die Behandlung stressrelevanter Symptome und die Entspannung effektiv fördern. Jedoch hat keine Studie explizit das Potential  erforscht, den Arbeitsmechanismus mit einen kombinierten Ansatz zu kombinieren, bei dem Live-Musik benutzt wird, um die Atmung zu beeinflussen. Deshalb war das Ziel dieser Pilotstudie,  die psychophysischen Effekte einer kombinierten Intervention zu evaluieren. Insgesamt wurden 60 gesunde Erwachsenen randomisiert einer experimentellen oder einer Kontrollgruppe zugeteilt (in der die Teilnehmer eine aufgenommene Entspannungsmusik  hörten). Herzschlag und Herzschlagvariabilität wurden in folgenden 5-minütigen Sequenzen aufgeschrieben: Ruhe-Baseline, stressvolle Aufgabe, Intervention, Post-Intervention in Ruhe. Zusätzlich wurden Selbstevaluation-Scores zu Entspannung und generellem Wohlbefinden mit visuellen Analog-Skalen eingeschätzt. Signifikante Zeit x Gruppen Interaktionseffekte  wurden für das generelle Wohlbefinden (p= .028 und die Herzschlagvariabilität gefunden, gemessen mit RMSSD (p< .001), als Indikator für zunehmenden parasympathischen Wirung bei der Experimentalgruppe. Als Ergebnis scheint die Kombination von Musiktherapie und Resonanzatmung eine wirksame und effektive Maßnahme für Entspannung und Wohlbefinden bei gesunden Erwachsenen zu sein.

Keywords: Musiktherapie, Herzschlagvariabilität, Entspannung, Atmung

[Traditional Chinese 繁體中文]
音樂引導共振呼吸的放鬆效果:隨機對照初探研究

摘要
音樂治療與共振呼吸(以0.1赫茲頻率呼吸) 在治療壓力相關症狀和促進放鬆方面可能是有效的。然而,沒有任何經過證實的研究確切的探討使用現場演奏的音樂引導呼吸的方法結合到處遇機制的可能性。因此,本初探研究的目標即為評估此結合式的處遇機制對生心理帶來的影響。研究中共有60名健康成人受試者隨機分配到實驗組與對照組(受試者聆聽事先錄製的音樂)。心跳速率與心率變異性則在以下五分鐘的段落中擷取:休息狀態基線、壓力性任務、處遇過程、處預後的休息狀態。此外,放鬆與一般健康狀態的自評分數也使用視覺模擬評分來進行評估。我們發現在一般幸福感(p = .028)及RMSSD心率變異測量(p < .001)上有顯著的時間x團體互動效果,實驗組的副交感神經流量明顯增加。總結來說,結合音樂治療與共振呼吸來引導放鬆與促進幸福感對健康成人而言似乎是個能被接受且有效果的方式。

 

Clinical Observations of Live, Improvisational Harp Music in Neonatal Intensive Care
Abstract
Music Therapy services in Neonatal Intensive Care Units has received growing
attention through an increasing body of research and practice.  As part of
a developmental program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, live improvisational
harp music was used with a selection of medically stable infants and their
families.  The music intervention used a Reverie Harp played by a
qualified music therapist, tailored to the infant’s individual responses. These
sessions were simultaneously observed by a nurse who was certified in NIDCAP
(Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program). The NIDCAP
observations were used to note what effect, if any, this type of music
intervention had on the infant’s behavioral state and regulation. The
behavioral observations and the responses to the music were shown to be calming
and enabled the infants to self-regulate their behavior. Further research is
required to substantiate the efficacy of live improvisational harp music
tailored to the infant’s responses and its place among other music
interventions in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Collaborating with an
experienced nurse in the introduction of music therapy services is worthwhile
in identifying infants and their families who may benefit from specific music
interventions.
Keywords: NICU, music therapy, live music, Reverie Harp, NIDCAP, Neonate

Español
Resumen
Los servicios de Musicoterapia en las unidades de Intensivas Neonatales han recibido una creciente atención a través del incremento de las investigaciones y prácticas. Como parte del desarrollo de un programa dentro de una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales , se utilizó  música en vivo improvisada en arpa con una selección de infantes médicamente estables y sus familias. En las intervenciones musicales se utilizó el Arpa Raverie ejecutada por un musicoterapeuta calificado, y estas intervenciones estaban personalizadas a las respuestas individuales del bebé. Las sesiones fueron observadas en simultáneo por una enfermera calificada en NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program).  Estas observaciones NIDCAP fueron utilizadas para dar cuenta de que tipo de efecto, si había uno, tenía esta intervención en el estado conductual del infante y en su regulación. Las observaciones conductuales y las respuestas a la música demostraron ser calmantes y les permitían a los infantes auto-regularse. Se requieren investigaciones adicionales para corroborar la eficacia de la música improvisada en vivo con arpa, personalizada a las respuestas del infante,  y su lugar junto a otras intervenciones dentro de las Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales. Resultó útil la colaboración de una enfermera capacitada para introducir la musicoterapia al servicio y para identificar infantes y familias que se pueden beneficiar con estas intervenciones musicales específicas.
Palabras clave: UCIN, musicoterapia, Arpa Raverie, música en vivo, NIDCAP, Neonato

German
Klinische Beobachtungen von live- improvisierter  Harfenmusik in der Neugeborenen-Intensivstation

Abstract: Musiktherapieangebote in Neugeborenen-Intensivstationen haben durch die zunehmende Anzahl von Forschung und Praxis wachsende Aufmerksamkeit erregt.  Als Teil eines Entwicklungsprogramms in einer Neugeborenen- Intensivstationen wurde live -improvisierte Harfenmusik bei ausgewählten medizinisch stabilen Kindern und ihren Familien gespielt. Als  Musikintervention spielte eine qualifizierte Musiktherapeutin eine Reverie-Harfe, die sich nach den individuellen Response des Kindes richtete. Diese Sitzungen wurden simultan von einer NIDCAP zertifizierten Krankenschwester beobachtet  (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program). Die NIDCAP-Beobachtungen wurden dazu genutzt festzuhalten, welchen möglichen Effekt diese Art der musikalischen Intervention auf das Verhalten und die Regulation des Kindes hat. Die Verhaltensbeobachtungen und die Response auf die Musik zeigten, dass diese Musik das Kind beruhigt und es befähigt, sein Verhalten selbst zu regulieren. Weitere Forschung  ist nötig, um die Wirksamkeit von live-improvisierter und auf das Kind zugeschnittener Harfenmusik und ihren Platz unter anderen Musik-Interventionen in der Neugeborenen-Intensivstation zu untermauern. Zur Einführung von Musiktherapieangeboten ist die Zusammenarbeit mit einer erfahrenen Krankenschwester wertvoll, um Kinder und ihre Familien heraus zu finden, die von speziellen Musikinterventionen profitieren können.

Keywords: NICU, Musiktherapie, Live-Musik, Reverie Harfe, NIDCAP, neugeborene Kinder

[Traditional Chinese 繁體中文]
新生兒加護病房現場即興演奏豎琴音樂之臨床觀察

摘要
透過越來越多的研究與實務工作,新生兒加護病房的音樂治療服務日益受到矚目。作為新生兒加護病房發展計畫的一部分,健康狀況穩定的新生兒及家人可以選擇現場即興演奏的豎琴音樂。由一位合格的音樂治療師使用小豎琴(Reverie Harp)針對個別新生兒的反應進行音樂介入。這些介入療程同時由一名NIDCAP(新生兒個別化發展照護與評估計畫)認證的護士進行觀察。NIDCAP 觀察用來指出這種類型的音樂介入對嬰兒行為狀態與調節是否有任何效果。從行為觀察及對音樂的反應顯示這類音樂能夠安撫嬰兒並讓他們表現出自我調節行為。未來仍需要進一步的研究來證實針對嬰兒反應的現場即興演奏豎琴音樂之效用及其在新生兒加護病房中各項音樂介入中的地位。在介紹音樂治療服務方面與經驗豐富的護理師合作是很值得的,他們能夠辨別出可能受益於音樂介入的嬰兒與家庭。

 

The Effects of Listening to Preferred Music on Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety amongst Elders in Residential Care: A Qualitative, Mixed Methods Study
Abstract
This article presents the qualitative findings of a mixed-methods evaluation of the effects of listening to preferred music on depression and anxiety in older people in residential care. 117 participants were recruited from 9 care homes, all but one in Greater London. The homes varied in size and management style, and participants came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds. In addition to their usual routine, each participant listened to a daily 30-minute program of their preferred music for 3 weeks. Both quantitative and qualitative data relating to anxiety and depression were collected during once-weekly semi-structured interviews. Findings from the qualitative data showed that listening to preferred music resulted in relaxation, positive reminiscence, less depression and less boredom. Physical reactions, such as ‘chills’ or tears, demonstrated emotional arousal; others, such as foot-tapping were beneficial to the most disabled participants. The use of preferred and favorite music was the principal facilitator of its effectiveness, whilst declines in memory, confidence and energy were barriers to the research procedure. It was concluded that listening to preferred music can bring some relief to depression and anxiety amongst older care home residents but that not all will benefit to the same degree.
Keywords: older people; preferred music; pain; depression; anxiety.

Español
Efectos de la escucha de música preferida en Síntomas de Depresión y Ansiedad  en Adultos Mayores en Residencias Geriátricas; estudio cualitativo de métodos mixtos.
Resumen
Este artículo presenta los hallazgos cualitativos de una evaluación de métodos mixtos sobre los efectos de la escucha de música preferida en adultos mayores con depresión y ansiedad en residencias geriátricas. Los 117 participantes fueron reclutados de 9 residencias, todas menos una en Greater London.  Las residencias variaban en tamaño y estilo de gerenciamiento, y los participantes provenían de distintos contextos socio-económicos. Como adicional a su rutina usual, cada participante escuchó diariamente un programa de 30 minutos de su música preferida durante 3 semanas. Tanto los datos cualitativos como cuantitativos relacionados a la ansiedad y la depresión fueron obtenidos durante una semana de entrevistas semi-estructuradas.
Los hallazgos de los datos cualitativos muestran que escuchar música preferida da como resultado; relajación, reminiscencias positivas, menos depresión y menor aburrimiento. Reacciones físicas, como escalofríos o lágrimas, demostraron un despertar emocional,  otras, como mover el pie sobre el piso fue beneficiosa para los participantes con más discapacidad. El uso de la música preferida o favorita fue el principal facilitador de esta efectividad, en tanto que la disminución de la memoria, la confianza y la energía fueron barreras para el procedimiento de investigación. Se concluyó que escuchar música favorita puede brindar cierto alivio a la depresión y a la ansiedad entre los residentes de hogares para adultos pero no todos podrán beneficiarse de la misma manera.
Palabras clave: adulto mayor, música preferida, dolor, depresión, ansiedad

German

Die Wirkung des Hörens von gewünschter Musik auf  Depression und Angst bei älteren Menschen in einer Pflegeeinrichtung:  eine qualitative mixed-method Studie

Abstract: Dieser Artikel  beschreibt qualitative Ergebnisse einer mixed-method Evaluation der Effekte vom Hören gewünschter Musik auf Depression und Angst bei älteren Menschen, die in einer Pflegeeinrichtung leben. 117 Teilnehmer  aus 9 Pflegeheimen wurden rekrutiert, alle mit einer Ausnahme aus dem Großraum London. Die Heime unterschieden sich in Größe und Art der Führung, die Teilnehmer kamen von verschiedenen sozio-ökonomischen Schichten. Zusätzlich zur gewöhnlichen Routineversorgung hörte jeder Teilnehmer ein 30-Minuten-Programm  mit selbst ausgewählter Musik über einen Zeitraum von 3 Wochen
In einem semistrukturierten Interview wurden einmal pro Woche sowohl quantitative als auch qualitative Daten zu Angst und Depression gesammelt. Ergebnisse der Qualitativen Daten zeigten, dass das Hören selbst gewählter Musik zu Entspannung, positiven Erinnerungen, weniger Depression und weniger  Langeweile führte. Physisch Reaktionen wie Chills oder Tränen deuteten auf emotionale Erregung ; andere, wie mit den Füßen tappen, waren für die meist behinderten Teilnehmer wohltuend. Der Einsatz von bevorzugter und geliebter Musik war die größte Hilfe ihrer Wirksamkeit, während die Abnahme von Gedächtnis, Vertrauen und Energie eine  Grenze für die Durchführung der Forschung darstellte. Daraus wurde geschlossen, dass das Hören von gewünschter Musik älteren Heimbewohnern einige Erleichterung in Bezug auf Angst und Depression bringen kann, aber dass nicht alle im gleichen Maß davon profitieren.

Keywords: ältere Menschen; gewünschte Musik; Schmerz, Depression, Angst.

[Traditional Chinese 繁體中文]
聆聽偏好音樂對高齡住院照護長者的憂鬱及焦慮症狀之影響:質性與混和方法之研究

摘要
本文以混和研究法中的質性研究結果呈現聆聽偏好音樂對高齡住院長者的焦慮及憂鬱症狀之影響。本研究總共從9間安養院中召募117位受試者,除了其中一間安養院外,其餘皆在大倫敦地區。這些安養院的規模與管理風格皆不相同,受試者亦來自不同的社經背景。除了他們的例行活動外,每位受試者每天聆聽30分鐘他們偏好的音樂,為期3週,並在一週一次的半結構式訪談中收集焦慮與憂鬱的量化與質性資料。從質性資料的結果顯示聆聽偏好音樂可以幫助放鬆、正向的恢復記憶、減緩憂鬱並減低無聊感。身體反應如起雞皮疙瘩或流淚,情緒被激起,或是腳打拍子等,對於行動不便的受試者都是有助益的。這些主要的促進效果是來自於使用偏好與喜愛的音樂,而研究過程的障礙則來自於記憶力下降,信心與能量下降。我們得到的結論是,聆聽偏好的音樂可以對高齡住院長者的憂鬱與焦慮帶來緩解效果但並非對所有人都帶來同等的效果。

Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy for Acquired Non-Fluent Aphasia
Abstract
For decades Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) has shown good potential within the aphasia population, yet has seldom been used as a frontline treatment, rather placed within a myriad of treatment techniques utilized during aphasia therapy.  Debate continues regarding the mechanisms of change from MIT, both therapeutically and neurologically. Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy (MMIT) has developed through the work of Music Therapists, lessening the steps utilized in MIT to emphasize a more direct transfer to speech.  As the main focus of treatment for non-fluent aphasia, MMIT can be an effective means of language re-acquisition. This clinical report will discuss outcomes from seven clients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who received treatment from a home-based Music Therapy service.

Español
Modificación de la Terapia de Entonación Melódica para la Afasia No-Fluida Adquirida
Resumen
Por décadas la Terapia de Entonación Melódica (MIT) ha mostrado un buen potencial en la población con afasia, sin embargo no ha sido utilizada como tratamiento de primera línea, sino que se ha colocado dentro de un conjunto de tratamientos técnicos utilizados durante la terapia para afasia.  El debate continua con respecto a los mecanismos de cambio del MIT, tanto terapéutica como neurológicamente. La Terapia de Entonación Melódico Modificada (MMIT) se ha desarrollado a través del trabajo de Musicoterapeutas, disminuyendo los pasos utilizados en el MIT para enfatizar una transferencia más directa al habla. Como foco principal del tratamiento para la afasia no-fluente, el MMIT puede ser un medio eficaz para la re-adquisición del lenguaje. Este informe clínico analizará los resultados de siete clientes con afasia crónica no fluente que recibieron tratamiento domiciliario del servicio de Musicoterapia.

German
Modifizierte melodische Intonationstherapie  für erworbene non-fluent Aphasie.
Abstract

Über Jahrzehnte hat  die Melodische Intonatiostherapie (MIT) gutes Potential  für die aphasische Bevölkerung gezeigt, sie wurde jedoch selten als wichtige Behandlungsmethode genutzt, sondern eher inmitten einer Vielzahl von Behandlungstechniken für Aphasiker plaziert. Die Debatte um therapeutische und neurologische Veränderungen durch MIT werden fortgesetzt. Die Modifizierte Melodische Intonationstherapie  (MIT) wurde durch die Arbeit von Musiktherapeuten entwickelt, die die Schritte der MIT verminderten um einen direkteren Transfer zur Sprache zu bewirken. Als Hauptfokus einer Behandlung von Aphasie kann die MIT ein effektives Mittel zur Wiedererlangung von Sprache darstellen. Dieser klinische Bericht diskutiert die Ergebnisse von sieben Klienten mit chronischer non-fluent Aphasie, die ihre Musiktherapiebehandlung zuhause bekamen.

[Traditional Chinese 繁體中文]
後天性非流暢型失語症之改良式旋律語調治療

摘要
近數十年來,運用旋律語調治療(MIT)於失語症族群中具備良好的潛力,但卻很少在作為主要第一線治療方式,僅被視為失語症的無數治療中的其中一項技術。現在有許多關於旋律語調治療在治療上或神經學上的改變機制相關的辯論仍持續著。改良式的旋律語調治療是透過音樂治療師的工作發展出來,簡化了運用MIT的步驟,強調更直接的傳化為語言。作為非流暢型失語症治療的主要焦點,改良式旋律語調治療(MMIT)可以成為重新獲得語言的有效方法。這份臨床報告將探討七位慢性非流暢型失語症患者接受在家音樂治療服務的成果。

 

Relationship Completion in Palliative Care Music Therapy: Clinical Case Example-Part 1
ABSTRACT
The following case study represents an example of music therapy research in palliative care with a focus on relationship completion. This case of ‘Bill’, presents one of four participant’s experience included in the research study on relationship completion in palliative care. The account of Bill’s case study are presented in Part II of this paper.(1) Bill received 30 individual music therapy sessions provided at three levels of practice.(2) The music therapy techniques utilized included: song choice; lyric discussion and analysis; songwriting, singing and playing pre-composed songs; life review; and song dedication. Bill’s wife (a study co-participant) also joined in the music therapy sessions towards the end of the process.
Keywords: relationship completion, palliative care, songwriting, grieving, love

Español
Finalizando una Relación. Musicoterapia en Cuidados Paliativos; Ejemplo de Caso Clínico Parte 1
Resumen
El siguiente estudio de caso representa un ejemplo de investigación musicoterapéutica en cuidados paliativos enfocado en la “Finalizando una Relación”. Este es el caso de “Bill” uno de los cuatro participantes cuyas experiencias se incluyeron en la investigación de terminación de  relación en cuidados paliativos. El reporte del estudio de caso de “Bill” está presentado en el Parte II de este artículo. (1) Bill recibió 30 sesiones individuales de musicoterapia en tres niveles de práctica. (2) Las técnicas musicoterapéuticas utilizadas incluyeron: elección de canciones, discusión de letras y análisis, escritura de canciones, canto y ejecución de canciones pre-compuestas, revisión de vida y dedicación de canciones. La esposa de Bill (co-participante del estudio) también participó de las sesiones de musicoterapia hacia el final del proceso.
Palabras clave: finalizando una relación, cuidados paliativos, escritura de canciones, duelo, amor

German
Abschließen einer Beziehung  in der palliativen Musiktherapie: klinisches Fallbeispiel  Teil I

Abstract: Die folgende Fallstudie beschreibt  ein Beispiel einer Musiktherapie Forschung in der Palliativversorgung mit dem Fokus auf  dem Abschließen einer Beziehung. Dieser Fall von „Bill“ repräsentiert einen von vier Erfahrungen von Teilnehmern, die in der Forschungsstudie über das Abschließen der Beziehung eingebunden waren. Die Bedeutung von Bills Fallstudie wird im 2. Teil dargestellt. (1) Bill bekam 30 Einzel-Musiktherapie-Sitzungen über drei praktische Stadien. (2) Die musiktherapeutischen Techniken schlossen ein: Auswahl von Liedern, sprechen  über und analysieren von Texten; songwriting; singen und spielen von komponierten Liedern, Lebensrückblick; und das Widmen von Liedern. Bills Frau (als Ko-Teilnehmerin in der Studie) kam zum Ende des Prozesses der
Musiktherapiesitzungen hinzu.

Keywords: Beziehungsergänzung; palliative care, songwriting, Trauer, Liebe

[Traditional Chinese 繁體中文]
安寧照護音樂治療中的關係完結:臨床案例-第1部分

摘要
下面的個案研究將呈現一個聚焦於關係完結的安寧照護音樂治療研究案例。「比爾」案例的呈現是根據本安寧照護關係完結研究中的四位參與者經驗當中的一位。本文的第二部分介紹了比爾案例研究的內容。(1)比爾在三個層次上接受了30次個別音樂治療療程。(2)音樂治療採用的技巧包括:選擇歌曲、歌詞討論與分析、詞曲創作、唱歌及彈奏已創作的歌曲、生命回顧和獻曲。比爾的妻子(研究共同參與者)也參與了音樂治療直到整個療程結束。

Relationship Completion in Palliative Care Music Therapy: Clinical Case Research Overview and Results-Part 2
ABSTRACT
Part I  of this paper presented the clinical case of Bill: a participant in the research study investigating the role of relationships completion in palliative care music therapy. Part II presents a brief overview of the research study, and the description of Bill’s case study (one of the four primary participants). The study sought to answer the primary question: What is the experience of a dying person engaged in a specific music therapy treatment program intended to facilitate relationship completion? The investigation was a phenomenological qualitative inquiry that included multiple data sources analyzed through a process coding of the data and identifying themes.
Keywords: palliative care, relationship completion, love, phenomenology, grieving

Español
Finalizando una Relación en Musicoterapia en Cuidados Paliativos: Resumen de  Investigación sobre un caso Clínico y Resultados – Parte 2
Resumen:
En la Parte I  de este artículo fue presentado el caso clínico de Bill; participante de estudio de investigación que investiga  el rol de la finalización de relaciones en musicoterapia en cuidados paliativos. La Parte II presenta un breve resumen del estudio de investigación y la descripción del caso de Bill (uno de los cuatro participantes primarios). El estudio buscó responder a la siguiente pregunta principal: ¿Cuál es la experiencia de una persona moribunda que participa en un programa específico de tratamiento de musicoterapia destinado a facilitar la finalización de la relación? La investigación fue una investigación cualitativa fenomenológica que incluyó múltiples fuentes de datos analizadas a través de un proceso de codificación de los datos y la identificación de temas.
Palabras clave: cuidados paliativos, finalización de la relación, amor, fenomenología, aflicción

German
Abschließen einer Beziehung  in der palliativen Musiktherapie: klinische Fallforschung : Überblick und Ergebnisse Tei II

Abstract: Teil I dieses Artikels stellte „Bill“ als klinischen Fall vor: e Teilnehmer in der Forschungsstudie, die sich dem Abschließen einer Beziehung  in der Palliativversorgung widmet. Teil II stellt einen kurzen Überblick dieser Studie vor, und die Beschreibung von Bills Fallstudie /(einer der vier anfänglichen Teilnehmer). Dies Studie versucht die primäre Frage zu beantworten: Was ist die Erfahrung einer sterbenden Person, die in ein spezifisches Musiktherapieprogramm eingebunden ist, die das Abschließen  einer Beziehung erleichtern will? Die Untersuchung war eine phänomenologische qualitative Fragestellung, die multiple Quellen von Daten einschloss, die einen Prozess des Codierens von Daten und des Identifizierens von Themen analysierte.

Keywords: Palliativversorgung, Abschließen einer Beziehung, Liebe, Phönomenologie, Trauern.

[Traditional Chinese 繁體中文]
安寧照護音樂治療中的關係完結:臨床研究案例概述與結果-第2部分

摘要
本文的第一部分介紹了比爾的臨床案例:一個參與者研究探討完結關係的在安寧照護音樂治療中的角色。第二部分簡要的介紹本研究,以及對比爾(四個主要參與者之一)的案例之描述。本研究旨在回答以下研究問題:臨終病人參與以促進關係完結為目的之音樂治療處遇計畫的經驗為何?本研究為現象學之質性研究,包含多元的資料來源,並透過編碼與定義主題進行分析。

 Environmental Music in a Hospital Setting: Exploring the Music-Making Process of Music Therapists and Performing Musicians

Background: The study is a qualitative study that explores the music making process of music therapists and musicians when provide environmental music therapy (EMT) and environmental music (EM) in hospital settings. Environmental Music Therapy (EMT) is an approach within the field of music therapy, utilized by trained, licensed professionals utilizing live music to address the physical, psychological, and cultural needs of patients, caregivers, and staff in the hospital environment. Environmental Music (EM) is defined as live music performed by musicians in public areas of hospitals typically on a volunteer basis. Both models might appear to be similar when being presented. The underlying differences need to be discussed.
Objective: This study explores the similarities and differences between musicians’ and music therapists’ process of the music-making process and its impact on the sound environment, patients, and caregivers.
Method: Interviews were conducted with 6 musicians providing EM and 5 music therapists providing EMT. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach.
Results: Results suggest that although music therapists were more specific with treatment goals, musicians consider their contributions to be beneficial to both the hospital environment and to the emotional states of individuals as well. Findings indicate music therapy and community music programs have value in this setting, often associated with anxiety and stress. Discussion includes considerations for collaborations between music therapists and musicians in the hospital setting.
Keywords: music and medicine, music and health, environmental music, environmental music therapy, community music, attunement, deep listening

German
Environmental Music in einem klinischen Setting: die  Untersuchung des Prozesses des Musizierens von Musiktherapeuten und  ausübenden Musikern.

Hintergrund:  Diese Studie ist eine qualitative Studie, die den Prozess des Musizierens von Musiktherapeuten und Musikern während Environmental Music Therapy (EMT) und Environmental Music (EM) in einem klinischen Setting untersucht. EMT ist eine musiktherapeutische Methode  die von ausgebildeten und lizensierten Professionellen ausgeübt wird, die live Musik dazu nutzen, die physischen, psychologischen und kulturellen Bedürfnisse der Patienten , Pflegenden und des Teams in der Klinik anzusprechen. EM bedeutet Live-Musik, die von Musikern in öffentlichen Bereichen der Kliniken, typischerweise auf der Basis von Volontären gespielt wird. Beide Modelle könnten ähnlich erscheinen, während sie  vorgeführt werden. Die zugrundeliegenden Unterschiede müssen diskutiert werden.
Ziel: Diese Studie untersucht die Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede zwischen den Prozessen bei Musikern und Musiktherapeuten beim Prozess des Musizierens und den Einfluss auf die klangliche Umgebung, die Patienten und die Pflegenden.
Methode: Mit 6 EM-Musikern und 5 EMT-Musiktherapeuten wurden Interviews durchgeführt. Die Daten wurden mithilfe eines modifizierten Grounded-Theory  Ansatzes analysiert
Ergebnisse:  Die Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, dass obwohl  Musiktherapeuten spezifischer auf die Behandlungsziele eingingen, die Musiker betrachteten ihren Beitrag für beide, das klinische Umfeld und den emotionale Befindlichkeit der einzelnen, als wohltuend.  Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass Musiktherapie und Community-Music-Programme ihren Wert haben in diesem Setting, das oft mit Angst und Stress assoziiert wird. Die Diskussion beinhaltet Überlegungen für eine Zusammenarbeit von Musiktherapeuten und Musikern in klinischen Setting.

Keywords: Musik und Medizin, Musik und Gesundheit, Environmental Music, Environmental Music Therapy, Community Music, Abstimmung, aufmerksames Zuhören.

[Traditional Chinese 繁體中文]
醫院場域的環境音樂:探討音樂治療師與音樂演奏家的音樂演奏歷程

摘要
背景:這項研究是一個探討音樂治療師與音樂家在醫院場域提供環境音樂治療(EMT)或環境音樂(EM)時,音樂演奏歷程之質性研究。環境音樂治療(EMT)是音樂治療領域中的一種方法,由經過訓練、領有證照的專業人員運用現場音樂照顧醫院環境中的病人、照顧者及醫護人員之生理、心理以及社會文化需求。環境音樂(EM)則定義為在醫院的公開場合由音樂家現場演奏音樂,通常是由志願者提供此項服務。兩者在呈現上很相似,但基本的差異需要被討論。

研究目的:本研究旨在探討音樂家與音樂治療師音樂演奏歷程的相似處與相異處,及其對聲音環境、病人和照顧者的影響。

研究方法:對六位提供環境音樂的音樂家及五位提供環境音樂治療的音樂治療師進行訪談。資料部分以經過調整的紮跟理論方法進行分析。

研究結果:結果顯示儘管音樂治療師對於治療目標較為明確,音樂家也認為他們的貢獻也有利於醫院環境及個人的情緒狀態。研究結果指出音樂治療與社區音樂計畫對於此環境都具有價值,且通常與焦慮和壓力狀態有關。討論包括音樂治療師與音樂家在醫院場域的合作考慮。

Music and Medicine
Volume 10, no.1, January 2018

Music Medicine’s Influence on Music Psychotherapy Practice with Traumatized Individuals

Abstract
This article describes the key neurological findings that impact music psychotherapy practice. I will also contemplate whether such findings could provide a foundation for music psychotherapy.  Within the framework of music medicine research, this article will seek to strengthen and qualify rationale for the common acknowledgement of the ‘power of music,’ a phrase typically invoked to explain essential aspects of the music psychotherapy process. A neurological foundation may serve to support a grounded rationale in the utilization of how music can be best implemented within a music psychotherapy construct with clients. The article will introduce the following most essential neurological rationale supporting the therapeutic impact of music engagement, (music listening or music-making). The following premises pertain to music psychotherapy practices: 1) Music is multisensory and may stimulate various sensory areas, 2) Music may retrieve memories and evoke emotions, and 3) Music may elicit changes in hormones and neurotransmitters.

Español
Influencia de la Medicina Musical en la práctica de Musicopsicoterapia con individuos traumatizados
Resumen:
Este artículo describe los principales hallazgos neurológicos que impactan sobre la práctica de la musicopsicoterapia. También se tendrá en cuenta si estos hallazgos pueden proporcionar bases para la musicopsicoterapia. Dentro del encuadre de la investigación médica en Música, este artículo buscará fortalecer y calificar de manera racional el conocimiento común del “poder de la música”, frase típica evocada para explicar los aspectos esenciales del proceso de la psicoterapia médica. La fundamentación neurológica puede servir para dar sustento a un basamento racional para una mejor forma de utilizar la música dentro del constructo de musicopsicoterapia con los clientes. Este artículo introducirá los basamentos neurológicos fundamentales más importantes que fundamentan el impacto terapéutico de la actividad musical (escucha y hacer musical).  Las siguientes premisas pertenecen a las practicas musicopsicoterapeuticas: 1) La Música es multisensorial y puede estimular varias áreas sensitivas, 2) La Música puede recuperar memorias y evocar emociones, y 3) La Música puede generar cambios hormonales y de los neurotransmisores.

German
Die Wirkung von MusikMedizin auf die psychotherapeutische Arbeit mit traumatisierten Menschen
Abstract
Dieser Artikel beschreibt grundlegende neurologische Erkenntnisse,  die auf die musikpsychotherapeutische Praxis einwirken. Ich werde auch darüber nachdenken, inwieweit diese Ergebnisse eine Grundlage für Musik-Psychotherapie sein können.  Innerhalb des Rahmens der musik-medizinischen Forschung versucht dieser Artikel, die Begründungen für die allgemeine Anerkennung der „Macht von Musik“ zu finden und zu qualifizieren – das ist ein Satz, der immer wieder angeführt wird, um besondere  Aspekte des musik-psychotherapeutischen Prozess zu erklären. Die neurologischen Ausführungen dienen dazu, ein Grundprinzip zu finden, wie Musik am besten für ein Klienten- zentriertes musikpsycho-therapeutisches Konstrukt verwendet werden kann. Der Artikel beschreibt im Folgenden die wichtigsten neurologischen Grundprinzipien, die den therapeutischen Einfluss durch musikalisches Engagement unterstützen (Musik hören oder selber spielen). Die folgenden Prämissen betreffen die Praxis von Musiktherapie: 1) Musik ist multisensorisch und stimuliert verschiedene sensorische Bereiche, 2) Musik kann Erinnerungen zurückholen und Emotionen erwecken, und 3) Musik kann Veränderungen bei Hormonen und Neurotransmittern bewirken.

Traditional Chinese
音樂醫學對創傷個體音樂心理治療實務之影響
本文介紹了在神經學研究中影響了音樂心理治療實務的關鍵性發現。我也將通盤思考這些發現能為音樂心理治療提供哪些學理基礎。在音樂醫學研究的框架中,本文將找尋能強化與定義大眾共同認定的「音樂的力量」之基礎── 一個語常用來解釋音樂心理治療歷程的用語。神經學基礎可能有助於支持與個案進行音樂心理治療如何最佳的運用音樂之基礎理論。本文介紹下列支持音樂互動(音樂聆聽或玩音樂)中的治療效果之重要神經學原理。以下為音樂心理治療實務相關之論述:1) 音樂是多感官的,並可能刺激各種感官領域。2)音樂可能喚起回憶並激發情緒。3)音樂可能引發賀爾蒙與神經傳導介質的改變。

[Korean]
트라우마 경험을 가진 내담자를 위한 음악 심리 치료에서의 음악의 치료적 사용
초록
본 연구는 음악 치료 시행에 영향을 미치는 중요한 신경학 연구 결과를 설명하고 있다. 또한 연구자는 이러한 연구 결과가 음악 심리 치료에서 유용하게 활용될 수 있는 논점을 제안하였다. 음악 치료 연구의 체계 내에서, 본 연구는 음악의 치료적 힘에 대한 적용 가능한 논거를 강화하고 공고히 하는데 기여할 것이다. 신경학적 근거는 음악 심리 치료라는 구성 개념 내에서 음악을 치료적 도구로 활용할 수 있는 기초 근거를 뒷받침해줄 것이다. 본 연구는 음악 개입, 즉 음악을 듣거나 음악을 만드는 과정에서의 치료 효과를 뒷받침해주는 다음과 같은 가장 기본적인 신경학적 근거를 소개할 것이다. 다음 전제들은 음악 치료와 관계가 있다.: 1)음악은 다중감각적(multisensory)이며, 다양한 감각 영역을 자극한다. 2)음악은 기억 회상을 유도하고 감정을 상기시켜준다. 3) 음악은 호르몬과 신경전달물질들의 변화를 유도한다.

[Japanese: 日本語]
トラウマ患者との音楽心理療法学臨床への音楽医療の影響
要旨
本文献では音楽心理療法臨床への神経学的な調査結果の要点を記述している。また、筆者は、調査結果が音楽心理療法のための基盤となるものかどうかを考察している。本文献は、音楽医療研究の枠組みの中で、日常的に認められる「音楽の力」を補強し、良質な理論的根拠を探し出す。神経学的基盤は、患者との音楽心理学構成概念の中でどのように音楽が最適施行されかにおいて、理論的根拠の基礎を支持できるであろう。本文献は、音楽エンゲージメントの療法的影響を支援するものとして、下記の最も重要な神経学的理論的根拠を紹介する(音楽鑑賞もしくは音楽演奏)。次の前提は、音楽心理療法に関係する:1) 音楽は多感覚もしくは様々な感覚領域を刺激する可能性がある、2)音楽は記憶を引き出し、感情を喚起する、3)音楽はホルモンと神経伝達物質を変化させる可能性がある。

 

The Effects of Group singing on Affect in people with Parkinson’s Disease

Abstract
There is increasing evidence of the benefits of music, in particular singing, for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Current research has primarily focused on vocal or motor symptoms. Our aim was to examine the immediate emotional effects of group singing in people with PD, and whether the type of music sung (familiar vs. unfamiliar songs) moderates these effects. We also explored whether differences in music reward modulate the emotional effects of group singing in people with PD.  11 participants with PD completed the Positive And Negative Affect Schedule in three conditions: immediately after group singing (1) familiar songs, (2) unfamiliar songs, and (3) no singing. They also completed the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire. Positive affect scores were higher in the singing (collapsed across familiar and unfamiliar songs) than no-singing condition. There was no significant difference in positive affect scores between the two singing conditions (familiar/unfamiliar songs). There was a positive but not statistically significant relationship between music reward and positive affect scores after singing. This study documents enhanced positive affect in people with PD immediately after group singing. This has clinical implications for the use of singing as a therapeutic intervention in people with PD.

German
Die Wirkung von Gruppensingen auf Patienten mit Parkinson
Abstract
Es gibt eine wachsende Evidenz des positiven Einflusses von Musik auf Menschen mit Parkinson (PD), besonders durch Singen. Die aktuelle Forschung beschäftigt sich primär mit stimmlichen und motorischen Symptomen. Unser Ziel war, die unmittelbaren emotionalen Effekte des Gruppensingens auf Menschen mit PD zu untersuchen, und ob das Singen solcher Musik (bekannte vs. unbekannte Lieder) diese Effekte abmildern kann. Wir untersuchten außerdem, ob die Unterschiede bei Musik-Belohnung die emotionalen Effekte des Gruppensingens bei Menschen mit PD modulieren. 11 Teilnehmer mit PD durchliefen das Positive And Negative Affect Schedule in allen drei Bereichen: unmittelbar nach dem Singen in der Gruppe  von (1) bekannten Liedern, (2) unbekannte Lieder und (3) kein singen. Sie füllten das Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire aus. Außerdem ergänzten sie, dass die positiven Affect Scores beim Singen höher lagen (schwankend zwischen bekannten und unbekannten Liedern) als ohne Singen. Es gab keinen signifikanten Unterschied im positiven Affect Score bei beiden Singbereichen (bekannte/unbekannte Lieder). Es gab eine positive aber statistisch nicht signifikante Beziehung zwischen Musik-Belohnung und den positiven Affect Scores nach dem Singen. Diese Studiendokumente übertreiben die positiven Affekte nach dem Gruppensingen bei Menschen mit PD. Dies hat klinische Implikationen für das Gruppensingen als therapeutische Intervention für Menschen mit PD.

Español
Resumen:
Hay un aumento de evidencia de los beneficios de la música , en particular el canto , en personas con Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP). La siguiente investigación esta principalmente enfocada en los síntomas vocales y motores.  Nuestro objetivo es examinar el efecto emocional inmediato de el canto grupal en personas con EP , y determinar si los distintos tipos de música cantada (familiar versus no familiar) moderan estos efectos. También exploramos si las diferencias en la gratificación  musical modulan los efectos emocionales en el canto grupal de personas con EP. Los 11 participantes con EP completaron la Escala Afecto Positivo y Negativo en tres condiciones: inmediatamente después del canto grupal de 1) canciones familiares 2) canciones no familiares y 3) sin canto . También completaron el Cuestionario Barcelona de Gratificación Musical. Los sentimientos positivos puntuaron más alto en el canto (decreciendo a través de canciones familiares y no familiares) que en momentos sin cantar. No hubo cambios significativos en puntuación de sentimientos positivos entre los dos momentos de canto (canciones familiares y no familiares). Hubo una diferencia significativa positiva ,pero no estadística, entre la gratificación musical y las puntuaciones de sentimientos positivos luego del canto. Este estudio documenta las mejoras en los sentimientos positivos de personas con EP inmediatamente después de canto grupal. Esto tiene implicaciones clínicas para el uso del canto como una herramienta de intervención terapéutica  en personas con EP.

Traditional Chinese
團體歌唱對帕金森氏症患者情緒的影響

有越來越多的證據顯示音樂有益於帕金森氏症患者,尤其是唱歌。當前的研究主要針對患者的聲音或動作症狀。而我們的目標是在研究團體歌唱對帕金森氏症患者立即的情緒影響,以及演唱的歌曲類型(熟悉或不熟悉)是否調節了這些效果。我們也探討了音樂回饋的差異是否會影響參與團體歌唱的帕金森氏症患者的情緒。本研究中,11位患有帕金森氏症的受試者在團體中唱1)熟悉的歌曲、2)不熟悉的歌曲、3)不唱歌,之後立即進行正向與負向情緒試驗排程。他們也完成了巴塞隆納音樂回饋量表。正向情緒分數在歌唱狀態(包含熟悉/不熟悉曲目)高過不唱歌的狀態。而兩種歌唱狀態(熟悉/不熟悉歌曲)則未在正向情緒的分數上顯示出顯著差異。歌唱之後的音樂回饋與正向情緒分數顯示出正向但統計上未達顯著之相關性。本研究記錄了團體歌唱後對帕金森氏症患者情緒立即的正向影響,在臨床實務上,能夠運用歌唱作為帕金森氏症患者的治療處遇。

[Korean]

초록
파킨슨(PD) 환자들에게 영향을 미치는 음악의 효과에 대한 근거가 증가하고 있다. 현재까지의 연구는 주로 목소리나 운동 신경 증상들에 포커스를 맞추었다. 본 연구에서는 PD 환자들의 정서에 집단 노래하기가 직접적으로 끼치는 영향과 부른 노래의 유형(친숙한 노래 vs 친숙하지 않은 노래)이 파킨슨 증상을 완화하는 지 여부를 조사하였다. 본 연구에서는 참여자가 느끼는 음악적 보상의 차이에 따라 집단 노래하기 중심의 중재에서의 PD 환자들의 정서에 미치는 영향의 여부를 조사하였다. 11명의 PD 환자들이 세 가지 조건에서 긍정적 정서 및 부정적 정서 목록(Positive And Negative Affect Schedule)을 작성했다. (1)친숙한 노래인 경우, (2)친숙하지 않은 노래를 부른 직후, 그리고 (3)노래를 부르지 않은 경우이다. 참여자는 본 연구에서 바르셀로나 음악 보상 질문지(Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire)도 작성하였으며, 긍정적 정서 점수는 노래를 부르지 않는 조건보다 (친숙한 노래와 친숙하지 않은 노래 상관없이)노래를 부를 때 더 높게 나타났다. 두 가지의 노래하는 조건에서 긍정적 정서 점수에는 유의미한 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 노래 후 긍정적 정서 점수와 음악 보상 사이에는 긍정적이지만 상관관계는 통계적으로 유의미하지 않은 결과를 나타냈다. 본 연구는 집단 노래하기 직후 향상된 PD 환자들의 긍정적 정서를 나타남을 보여주고 있으며, 이는 PD 환자들의 치료 중재법으로 노래하기 기법을 활용하는 것의 임상적 의의를 시사한다.

[Japanese: 日本語]
パーキンソン病に冒された人々への集団歌唱の効果
要旨
パーキンソン病患者(PD)ための音楽の有益性、特に歌唱のエビデンスは増加している。現行研究では、主に音声と運動性症状について注目している。我々の目的は、パーキンソン病患者の集団歌唱の即時的な感情的影響を調査すること、そして、どのようなタイプの歌唱(親しみのある歌vs.親しみのない歌)がそれらの効果を抑制するかどうか、であった。また、音楽報酬がパーキンソン病患者のグループで歌うことについての感情への影響に違いをもたらすかを調査した。11人のパーキンソン病の参加者は、集団歌唱の直後にPositive And Negative Affect Schedule を以下の3つの条件下で完了した:1) 親しみのある歌、2) 親しみのない歌、3) 歌唱なし。参加者はBarcelona Music Reward Questionnaireも完了した。ポジティブ感情のスコアは、歌唱ありが歌唱なしより高かった。親しみのある歌とない歌の間では、ポジティブ感情のスコアに有意差はなかった。歌唱後の音楽報酬とポジティブ感情スコアには肯定的な点はあったが、統計学的に有意な関係はなかった。本研究は集団歌唱直後のパーキンソン病患者のポジティブ感情向上を実証した。これはパーキンソン病患者への療法的介入としての歌唱使用の臨床的含意を持っている。

 

Heartbeat Recording and Composing in Perinatal Palliative Care and Hospice Music Therapy

Abstract
Perinatal hospice care is an emerging area of practice for music therapists. Perinatal hospice care offers multidimensional support for pregnant women whose infants have been diagnosed with a terminal or life-limiting illness . Music therapists are increasingly being employed in settings that offer services for pediatric patients with terminal illness. Recent research has suggested that creating music and/or song legacy projects in pediatric palliative care may offer multidimensional support for families coping with anticipatory grief and/or bereavement. Legacy project interventions may include song dedications, music and song legacies, musical autobiographies, Therapeutic Music Videos (TMV), and/or original compositions. Music therapy interventions that incorporate legacy work may include listening to live receptive music, music combined with other modalities (e.g. movement or art), or music-assisted counseling . Families have reported a number of benefits from this process, including strengthened connections with loved ones, creating meaningful shared experiences, serving as a catalyst for difficult conversations surrounding the death, providing insight during bereavement, transforming families’ perceptions of adversity, and creating continuing bonds with the deceased.

 

 

German
Aufnahmen von Herzschlag und Komposition in der perinatalen Palliativversorgung und der Hospiz-Musiktherapie
Abstract
Die perinatale Hospizversorgung ist ein wachsendes Praxisfeld für Musiktherapeuten. Die perinatale Hospizversorgung bietet multidimensionale Unterstützung für schwangere Frauen, bei deren Kindern eine terminale und lebensbegrenzende Krankheit diagnostiziert wurde. Musiktherapeuten werden immer öfter eingestellt in Settings, die pädiatrischen Patienten mit terminaler Krankheit Unterstützung anbieten. Eine neuere  Forschung empfiehlt, den Familien in der palliativen Versorgung über Erinnerungsprojekte mit Musik u/o Lied eine multidimensionale Unterstützung anzubieten, um antizipatorisch Trauer u/o einem Trauerfall zu bewältigen. Erinnerungsbezogene Interventionsprojekte können gewidmete Musik und Lieder, musikalische Autobiographien, therapeutische Musikvideos (TMV) u/o Kompositionen beinhalten. Musiktherapeutische Interventionen, die Erinnerungsarbeit einbeziehen, können auch Hören zu Livemusik, Musik kombiniert mit anderen Modalitäten (z.B. Bewegung oder Kunst) oder musik-assistierte Beratung beinhalten. Familien berichteten über vielfältigen Nutzen aus diesem Prozess, was die Stärkung der Verbindung mit geliebten Menschen oder das Schaffen bedeutungsvoller geteilter Erinnerungen einschließt; dieser Prozess dient zudem als Katalysator für schwierige Unterhaltungen um Tod, vermitteln von Einsicht bei einem Trauerfall, er transformiert die Sicht der Familien in Bezug auf Ablehnung und schafft dauerhafte Bindung mit dem Sterbenden.

Español
Grabación de Latidos Cardiacos y Composición en Cuidados Paliativos Perinatales en Musicoterapia Hospitalaria.
Resumen

El cuidado paliativo hospitalario en una área de práctica emergente para los musicoterapeutas. Este ofrece sostén multidimensional para las mujeres embarazadas cuyos bebes han sido diagnosticados con enfermedades terminales o limitantes para la vida. Cada vez más se emplean a musicoterapeutas en settings que ofrecen servicios para pacientes pediátricos con enfermedades terminales. Investigaciones recientes sugieren que la creación musical y/o los proyectos de canción legado en cuidados paliativos pediátricos pueden ofrecer sostén multidimensional para familias que enfrentan el dolor anticipatorio y/o duelo. El proyecto de intervenciones de legado puede incluir canciones dedicadas, música y canciones como legado, autobiografías musicales, Videos Musicales Terapéuticos y/o composiciones originales. Las intervenciones musicoterapéuticas que incorporan trabajo sobre el legado pueden incluir escucha receptiva de música en vivo, música combinada con otras modalidades (por ejemplo arte o movimiento) o counseling de asistencia musical. Las familias han reportado numerosos beneficios de este proceso, incluyendo fortalecimiento de las conexiones con los seres queridos , creación de experiencias compartidas significativas , catalizador de las conversaciones difíciles acerca de la muerte , proporcionando insight durante el duelo , transformación de las percepciones familiares sobre la adversidad y creando  lazos continuos con el fallecido.

 

Traditional Chinese
在圍產期安寧療護與臨終關懷音樂治療錄製心跳與創作音樂

圍產期(分娩前後)臨終關懷是音樂治療師的新興實務領域,為了胎兒被確診罹患絕症或有生命限制的疾病的孕婦提供多方面的支持。在為罹患絕症兒童提供服務的場域中,有越來越多的音樂治療師被雇用。最近的研究顯示,在兒科安寧照護中,創作音樂和/或流傳下歌曲可以多方面的支持家庭因應預期性哀傷及/或面對喪親之痛。遺贈計畫 (legacy project) 的介入方式可以包括獻曲、音樂歌曲遺贈、音樂自傳、療癒音樂影像和/或原創作曲。音樂治療介入中納入遺贈工作(legacy work)可以包含接受式的聆聽現場演奏,音樂與其他形式結合(如:動作或美術),或是以音樂輔助諮商進行。這些家庭表示從過程中獲得一些益處,包括增進與所愛之人的情感聯繫,創造有意義的共同經驗,在困難的死亡議題圍繞之下作為談話的催化劑,在喪親之痛中提供洞察見解,改變家族對逆境的看法,以及持續與亡者建立連結。

[Korean]
주산기(신생아 분만 전후기)의 완화 치료와 호스피스 음악 치료에서의 심장 박동 기록과 작곡
초록
주산기(신생아 분만 전후기) 호스피스 치료는 음악 치료사들에게 새로 나타난 분야이다. 주산기 호스피스 치료는 말기 또는 생명을 제한하는 질병을 진단받은 아기를 가진 임산부 여성들에게 다각적인 지원을 제공한다. 음악 치료사들은 말기 질병을 가진 소아 환자들 및 다양한 의료 서비스를 제공받는 환자들에게 음악을 점차적으로 확대하여 사용하고 있다. 최근 연구는 소아과 완화 치료를 통해 음악만들기 및 노래 자원들을 만드는 프로젝트가 머지않아 다가올 죽음과 이별로 인한 정서적 고통이나 사별을 극복하는 가족들에게 다각적인 지원을 제공함을 보고하고 있다. 유산 프로젝트(Legacy Project) 중재에는 노래 헌정, 음악과 노래 유산, 음악적 자서전, 치료 뮤직 비디오(Therapeutic Music Video, TMV), 독창적인 작곡 등이 포함될 수 있다. 유산 작업을 통합시킨 음악 치료 중재는 라이브 음악의 수용적 감상, 타 예술 분야(예: 동작 또는 미술)와 결합된 음악, 음악 지원 상담 등이 포함될 수 있다. 연구를 통해 참여 가족들은 이 과정에서 경험한 음악의 많은 이점들을 보고하였는데, 이는 음악유산 작업이 사랑하는 사람과의 관계 강화, 의미 있는 공동의 경험, 죽음과 관련된 어려운 대화과정에서의 촉매제 역할, 사별 경험에서의 통찰력, 역경에 대한 가족의 의식 변화, 그리고 죽음으로 인해 세상에 존재하지 않는 가족과의 지속적인 유대관계를 가능하게 함을 보고하였다.

[Japanese: 日本語]
ホスピス音楽療法と周産期緩和ケアにおける心臓音録音と作曲
要旨
周産期ホスピスケアは、音楽療法士にとって浮かび上がりつつある臨床領域である。周産期的ホスピスケアは、末期や致死的な疾患があると診断された幼児を妊娠する女性に多角的な支援を提供する。音楽療法士が末期疾患のある小児患者へのケアを提供するために雇われることは増加してきている。最近の研究は、小児終末期ケアにおいての音楽あるいは歌のレガシー(後に残せるもの)作成プロジェクトは、患者の家族が後に経験するグリーフ(喪失)あるいは死別に対処するための支援を多角的に提供できる可能性があることを示唆してきた。レガシー・プロジェクト介入には、歌の献呈、音楽と歌のレガシー、音楽自叙伝、療法的音楽ビデオ(TMV)、そしてオリジナルの作曲が含まれる。レガシー作成を取り入れた音楽療法介入には、受容性の高いライブ音楽を聴くこと、他の様式(例:ムーブメントやアートなど)と組み合わされた音楽、もしくは音楽付きのカウンセリングなどが含まれることがある。患者の家族は、このプロセスから、愛する人との関係が強まること、共有可能な意義ある経験が作れること、死の周囲での難しい会話の促進を提供すること、死別への洞察に備えること、不幸の認識の変容、故人との繋がりの継続を創造することなど、多く恩恵があることを報告している。
Differential effects of Bach’s Orchestral Suite No. 3 on Blood Pressure and
Heart rate: A Prospective Controlled Study

Abstract
Background There is little known about whether or not music of varying styles can directly alter blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in humans. We studied the potential effects of Bach’s orchestral Suite No. 3 in comparison to silence (S [controls CO]) on BP and HR.
Objective: To analyze the effect of different music styles (intervention group) on BP, HR, S compared to S (control group). Method: 120 volunteers aged 25-75 years were randomly assigned in the intervention group (n=60) or to a control group (n=60). Interventional music styles were the different parts of Bach’s Suite No. 3, BWV 1068 [Overture, Air, Gavotte, Bourrée, Gigue]). 60 healthy volunteers served as a control group (CO): they underwent an identical study protocol but without music application.Results: In studied volunteers, systolic, diastolic BP (mm Hg) and HR (min-1) decreased when Bach was played compared to CO (p<0.001). Prior to the study BPsyst was 128.3+11.3 mm Hg, BPdiast was 81.9+7.9 Hg and HR was 75.3+12.0 bpm. After sound exposure or in CO the following results were observed (table). *p<0.001, ap=0.01, bp=0.08
BPsyst (mm Hg)           BPdiast (mm Hg)          HR (min-1)
Overture           120.9+12.4*                76.9+8.8*                    69.8+11.2*
Air                   121.1+12.4*                77.1+7.9*                    68.4+9.4*
Gavotte            120.9+12.6*                77.0+8.9*                    68.5+9.8*
Bourrée            120.6+13.7*                76.5+9.4*                    66.4+8.4*
Gigue               120.4+15.2*                78.5+11.1*                  68.1+9.2*
Controls           120.6+8.7a                  75.4+5.5b                    78.8+11.9*

Conclusions The results provide clear evidence for the potential of Bach’ music styles to influence cardiovascular parameters. All parts of the Suite No. 3 lead to decreased values of BP and HR. In the control group we could not observe similar findings.

Key words
Johann Sebastian Bach, Suite No. 3 (BWV 1068), blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol

German
Differentielle Effekte der Orchestersuite No 3 von Bach auf Blutdruck und Herzrate: eine prospektive kontrollierte Studie
Abstract
Hintergrund: Es ist wenig darüber bekannt, ob Musik aus unterschiedlichen Stilrichtungen beim Menschen Blutdruck (BP) und Herzschlag (HR) direkt verändern kann oder nicht. Wir untersuchten die potentialen Effekte der Bach’schen Orchestersuite No 3 im Vergleich mit Stille (S [controls CO]) auf BP und HR.
Ziel: war, den Effekt unterschiedlicher Musikstile (Interventionsgruppe) auf BP, HR, S verglichen mit S (Kontrollgruppe) zu analysieren.
Methode: 120 Freiwillige zwischen 25–75 Jahren wurden randomisiert der Interventionsgruppe (n=60) oder der Kontrollgruppe (n=60) zugewiesen. Die Interventionsmusik waren verschiedene Teil aus der Suite No 3 von Bach, BWV 1068 [Ouvertüre, Air, Gavotte, Bourrée, Gigue]. 60 gesunde Freiwillige dienten als Kontrollgruppe (CO): sie durchliefen ein identisches Studienprotokoll,  aber ohne Musik. Ergebnisse: beiden Studienteilnehmern nahm der diastolische BP (mm Hg) und die HR (min-1) im Vergleich zur CO ab, wenn Bach gespielt wurde (p<0.001). Vor der Studie war der systolische BP, 128.3 +11.3 mm Hg. Der diastolische BP war 81.9+7.9 Hg und die HR war 75.3+12.0 bpm.
Nach der Klangexposition oder bei der CO wurde folgendes beobachtet (s.Table): *p<0.001, ap=0.01, bp=0.08

Español
Efectos Diferenciales de la Suite No. 3 de Bach en Presión Sanguínea y Ritmo Cardiaco.

Resumen
Background: Hay poco conocimiento sobre si los diferentes estilos musicales pueden alterar o no directamente la presión sanguínea (PS) y el ritmo cardiaco (RC) en seres humanos. Nosotros estudiamos los efectos potenciales de la Suite Orquestal de Bach Nro. 3 en comparación con silencio (S [control CO]) en PS y RC.
Objetivo: Analizar los efectos de diferentes estilos musicales (intervención grupal) en PS , RC , S comparando con S (grupo control). Método: 120 voluntarios de entre 25 y 75 años que fueron aleatoriamente asignados al grupo de intervención (n=60) o al grupo control (n=60). Los estilos de intervención musical eran diferentes partes de la Suite Nro. 3 de Bach, BWV 1068 [Overtura , Air , Gavotta, Bourre , Gigue] . 60 voluntarios saludables sirvieron como grupo de control (GC); ellos realizaron un estudio de protocolo idéntico pero sin la aplicación de la música.
Resultados: En los voluntarios estudiados la PS sistólica y diastólica (mm Hg) y el RC (min-1) disminuyo cuando la música de Bach sonaba comparado con el GC (p<0.001). Antes del estudio la PS sistólica era de 128.3+11.3 mm Hg. La PS diastólica era de 81.9+7.9 Hg y el RC era de 75.3+12.0 bpm. Luego de la exposición o en el GC estos fueron los resultados observados (tabla) *p<0.001, ap=0.01,bp=0.08BPsyst (mm Hg) BPdiast (mm Hg) HR (min-1) Overture 120.9+12.4*  76.9+8.8* 69.8+11.2* Air 121.1+12.4* 77.1+7.9* 68.4+9.4* Gavotte 120.9+12.6* 77.0+8.9* 68.5+9.8* Bourrée 120.6+13.7* 76.5+9.4* 66.4+8.4* Gigue 120.4+15.2* 78.5+11.1* 68.1+9.2*Controles 120.6+8.7a 75.4+5.5b 78.8+11.9*

Conclusiones: Los resultados proveen clara evidencia del potencial de la música de Bach para influenciar los parámetros cardiovasculares. Todas las partes de la Suite nro 3 llevaron a la baja de valores de PS y RC . En el grupo control no se observaron resultados similares.

Palabras claves : Johann Sebastian Bach , Suite Nro 3 (BWV 1068). Presión sanguínea , ritmo cardiaco, cortisol.

Traditional Chinese
巴哈第三號管絃樂組曲對血壓與心率之不同影響:一項前瞻性的對照研究

背景:關於不同風格的音樂是否能直接改變人們的血壓和心跳速率,目前我們仍知之甚少。本研究對照巴哈的第三號管弦樂組曲對照靜默狀態的控制組(S),研究此曲對血壓和心率的可能影響。
研究目的:分析不同音樂風格(實驗組)對血壓及心率的影響,並與控制組比較。
研究方法:120位年齡介於25-75歲之間的志願者隨機分配到實驗組(n=60)或控制組(n=60)。用於介入的音樂為巴哈第三號管絃樂組曲BWV1068的不同樂段[序曲、詠嘆調(G弦之歌)、嘉禾舞曲、布雷舞曲、吉格舞曲]。60名健康的志願者為控制組(CO):他們接受了相同的研究程序,但沒有聆聽音樂。
研究結果:在研究的志願者中,聆聽巴哈音樂時收縮壓、舒張壓與心率(min-1)與控制組相較之下降低了(p<0.001)。在研究介入前,收縮壓為128.3+11.3 mm Hg,舒張壓為81.9+7.9 Hg,而心率為75.3+12.0 bpm。聆聽音樂或在控制情境的介入後所觀察到的結果如下表所列 *p<0.001, ap=0.01, bp=0.08
收縮壓 (mm Hg)        舒張壓 (mm Hg)        心率 (min-1)
序曲                      120.9+12.4*                  76.9+8.8*                      69.8+11.2*
詠嘆調                   121.1+12.4*                   77.1+7.9*                       68.4+9.4*
(G弦之歌)
嘉禾舞曲              120.9+12.6*                  77.0+8.9*                      68.5+9.8*
布雷舞曲              120.6+13.7*                  76.5+9.4*                       66.4+8.4*
吉格舞曲              120.4+15.2*                  78.5+11.1*                     68.1+9.2*
控制組        120.6+8.7a                    75.4+5.5b                      78.8+11.9*

結論:這些結果提供了明確的證據證明巴哈風格的音樂有影響心血管參數的潛力。第三號組曲的每一個樂段皆使得血壓與心率值下降,在控制組則未觀察到類似的結果。

[Korean]
바흐 관현악곡 3번이 혈압과 심장 박동에 끼치는 영향
초록
배경: 다양한 스타일의 음악이 인간의 혈압(BP)와 심장박동(HR)의 직접적 변화를 유도한다는 보고는 미흡하다. 본 연구는 침묵이 유지되는 상황(아무런 소리 자극이 없는 상황)(S, 통제 CO)이 BP와 HR에 끼치는 영향과 비교해서 바흐의 관현악곡 3번이 BP와 HR에 끼치는 영향에 대해 비교 연구하였다.

목표: 연구목표는 S(통제 집단)과 비교해서 각기 다른 음악 스타일(실험 집단)이 BP, HR, S에 미치는 영향을 분석하는 것이다. 실험에 사용된 음악은 바흐 관현악곡 3번, BWV 1068의 각기 다른 부분들(Overture, Air, Gavotte, Bourree, Gigue)이었다. 본 연구의 대상자는 총 120명이며, 연령은 25-75세이다. 참여자중 60명은 실험 집단에, 나머지 60명은 통제 집단에 배정되었으며, 실험 집단에는 음악 프로토콜이 사용되었으며, 통제 집단에는 음악 프로토콜이 사용되지 않았다.

결과: 통제 집단과 비교했을 때 바흐의 음악 감상을 경험한 실험 집단 참여자들의 심장 수축, 확장 BP와 HR은 감소하였다. 실험 전 BP 수축은 128.3+11.3mg Hg, BP 확장은 81.9+7.9 Hg였으며, HR은 75.3+12.0 bpm으로 나타났다.

결론: 본 연구 결과는 바흐의 음악 스타일이 심혈관 매개변수들에 영향을 끼칠 가능성에 대해 분명한 증거를 제공하고 있다. 관현악곡 3번의 모든 부분은 BP와 HR의 수치 감소에 유의미한 영향을 미침을 보고하였다.

키워드
바흐, 관현악곡 3번(BWV 1068), 혈압, 심장 박동, 코르티

〔Japanese 日本語〕
バッハ管弦楽組曲第3番が血圧と心拍数に及ぼす効果

要旨
背景:変化する音楽スタイルが、人間の血圧と心拍を直接変化させる影響についての文献はまだ少ない。筆者らは、バッハの管弦楽組曲3番と、静寂(音楽のない状態)での状態で、被験者の血圧と心拍数を比較した。
目的: 異なる音楽スタイルの効果を、血圧と心拍数からコントロール群と比較し分析する。
方法:25歳から75歳の120名のボランティアを被験対象とし、60名(n=60)ずつランダムに介入群とコントロール群に分けた。介入群で使われた音楽スタイルは、バッハの組曲3番BWV 1068から異なる曲(序曲、アリア、ガヴォット、ブーレ、ジーグ)であった。コントロール群の60名の健康なボランティアには、まったく音楽介入がない状態で同じプロトコールを提供した。
結果:バッハが使われた被験者においては、収縮期血圧および拡張期血圧(mm Hg)、心拍数(min-1)が、コントロール群に比べて下がった(p<0.001)。
実験の前は、収縮期血圧は128.3+11.3 mm Hg  、拡張期血圧は81.9+7.9 Hg、心拍数は75.3+12.0 bpmであった。音楽介入群とコントロール群の結果は、下記の表を参照。
*p<0.001, ap=0.01, bp=0.08
収縮期血圧 (mm Hg) 拡張期血圧 (mm Hg) 心拍数 (min-1)
序曲 120.9+12.4* 76.9+8.8* 69.8+11.2*
アリア 121.1+12.4* 77.1+7.9* 68.4+9.4*
ガヴォット 120.9+12.6* 77.0+8.9* 68.5+9.8*
ブーレ 120.6+13.7* 76.5+9.4* 66.4+8.4*
ジーグ 120.4+15.2* 78.5+11.1* 68.1+9.2*
コントロール群 120.6+8.7a 75.4+5.5b 78.8+11.9*
結果:バッハの音楽スタイルが循環器系パラメータに良い影響を与えるという、明らかな証拠を得た。管弦楽組曲第3番のすべての曲が、血圧や心拍数を下げることができ、コントロール群では同じような結果を得ることはできなかった。

キーワード:ヨハン・セバスチャン・バッハ、管弦楽組曲第3番 (BWV 1068)、血圧、心拍、コルチゾール

Music and Medicine in Spain: History and New Developments of a Growing Discipline

Abstract
The strong link between music and medicine has been documented in Spain since the 17th century, showing that the therapeutic effects of music have been known for centuries. The development of music therapy as a scientific, independent discipline on the Iberian peninsula begins in the 1960s due to the pioneering work of Serafina Poch. Since then, the interest in music and medicine both by specialists and public has constantly increased. Nowadays, music therapy is taught in public universities and private institutions, and a growing number of health care and educational centers is implementing music therapy projects each year, producing also an increase in the research on the subject. A sore point, which we hope can be resolved soon, is that music therapy in Spain has not yet been recognized with an official title and as an independent profession, leading to fragmentation of the field and leaving the door open to professional intrusion.
Keywords: music therapy, music medicine, Spain

German
Musik und Medizin in Spanien: Geschichte und neue Entwicklung einer wachsenden Disziplin
Abstract
Die starke Verbindung zwischen Musik und Medizin wird in Spanien seit dem 17. Jahrhundert dokumentiert, was zeigt, dass der therapeutische Effekt seit Jahrhunderten bekannt ist. Die Entwicklung von Musiktherapie als einer wissenschaftlichen, unabhängigen Disziplin auf der Iberischen Halbinsel beginnt in den 1960er Jahren mit der Pionierarbeit von Serafina Poch. Seit dieser Zeit wuchs das Interesse an Musik und Medizin bei Spezialisten und in der Öffentlichkeit zunehmend. Heute wird  Musiktherapie an öffentlichen Universitäten und privaten Institutionen unterrichtet. Eine zunehmende Anzahl von Gesundheits- und Ausbildungszentren implementieren jedes Jahr neue Musiktherapieprojekte, und bewirken damit auch eine Zunahme von Forschungen in diesem Bereich. Ein wunder Punkt, den wir hoffen, bald zu bewältigen ist, dass Musiktherapie in Spanien noch nicht mit einem offiziellen Titel und als unabhängiger Beruf anerkannt wird, das führt zur beruflichen Fragmentierung und lässt die Tür für berufliche Besitzstörung offen.
Keywords: Musiktherapie, MusikMedizin, Spanien

Traditional Chinese
音樂與醫學在西班牙:一門新興學科的歷史與發展
自十七世紀以來,西班牙的文獻就已記載音樂與醫學間的密切連結,這顯示出音樂的治療效果已為人所知幾個世紀。而音樂治療在伊比利亞半島作為科學及一門獨立學科的發展則在先驅Serafina Poch的努力下開啟於1960年代。自此以後,專家與大眾對音樂與醫學的興趣不斷增加。現在,公立大學與私立學院皆有教授音樂治療,而每一年都有越來越多的健康照護與教育中心實施音樂治療,連帶使得此一主題的研究日益增加。然而,目前有個亟待盡速解決的問題,那就是在西班牙音樂治療的稱號以及作為一個獨立的專業都尚未被官方認可,導致此一領域的分散,並使得專業被侵犯。

[Korean]
스페인의 음악과 의학: 성장하는 학문 분야의 새로운 발전과 역사
초록
음악과 의학 사이에 존재하는 강력한 연관관계는 17세기 이후 스페인에서 기록되어왔으며, 이는 음악의 치료 효과가 수세기 동안 알려져 왔다는 것을 보여주는 것이라 할 수 있다. Serafina Poch의 선구적인 연구에 기인하여 1960년대부터 이베리아 반도에서 과학적이고 독립적인 학문 분야로 음악 치료가 발전하기 시작한다. 이후, 전문가들과 대중이 음악과 의학에 갖는 관심은 계속해서 증가해왔고, 최근에는 공립 대학과 사립 기관에서의 음악치료 교육이 확대되고 있으며, 점차 많은 의료 및 교육 센터들이 매년 음악치료 프로젝트를 시행하고, 그 주제에 대한 연구도 증가하고 있다. 반면, 스페인에서 음악치료가 아직 공식적 명칭 및 제도하에 독립적인 직종으로 인정받지 못하는 부분의 현실적 제약이 있음을 고찰함과 동시에 이것이 음악치료와 관련한 분야에서 치료사들의 분열 및 직업으로서의 음악치료사의 발전을 저해할 수 있음에 대해 고찰하였다.
키워드: 음악 치료, 음악 의학, 스페인

Japanese 日本語
スペインにおける音楽と医療: その歴史と新しい発展

要旨
音楽と医療との強い繋がりは17世紀以降のスペインの書物に記されており、音楽の療法的効果は何世紀にもわたって知られていることがわかっている。
イベリア半島における科学的かつ独立した治療法としての音楽療法の発展は、1960年代のセラフィナ・ポッチによるパイオニア的仕事によって始まった。それ以降、専門職や社会の音楽と医療に対する興味が、着々と増加していった。今では、音楽療法は公立大学や私立学校で教育されており、多くのヘルスケアや療育センターなどで、毎年音楽療法プロジェクトが実践されるようになって、研究成果も得られるようになった。一方で、これから解決されていくと思われる弱点として、スペインにおける音楽療法は、公の専門職、そして独立した職業としてまだ認知されていない。そのことによって、この職業分野が分裂したり、専門領域の侵害が起こったりしている、というのが現状である。
キーワード: 音楽療法、音楽と医療、スペイン

When the Composer Has PTSD: Examining the Life of George Lloyd (1919-1998)

Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can impair cognitive function, attention, memory, mood, initiative, human relationships and self-esteem. Music therapy has been used help to ameliorate some of these problems. Although there is literature on music and PTSD, there is scant information on the musician-composer with PTSD, the process of recovery, and the connections between composition, PTSD and neurocognitive function. Presented here is an account of George Lloyd, a highly regarded young English composer in the 1930s. Following severe trauma in World War II, Lloyd’s ability to compose suffered greatly for many years. He took a professional detour into market gardening to recover his health and then subsequently rehabilitated his musical career. Lessons learned from Lloyd’s life are described both in relation to approaches he used to achieve recovery from PTSD. A more general question of composition’s potential therapeutic effects in light of recent cognitive neuroscience will be considered.
Key words – George Lloyd – composer – PTSD – neuroscience

German

Wenn der Komponist PTSD hat: Das Leben von George Lloyd (1919-1998)
Abstract
Eine Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung (PTSD) kann kognitive Funktionen, Gedächtnis, Stimmung, Initiative, menschliche Beziehungen und Selbstvertrauen beeinträchtigen. Musiktherapie wird angewandt, um einige dieser Probleme zu verbessern. Obwohl Literatur über Musik und PTSD existiert, gibt es kaum Informationen über den Musiker und Komponisten, den Prozess der Genesung und die Verbindung zwischen Komposition, PTSD und neurokognitive Funktionen.  Hier nun ein Bericht über George Lloyd, einen hoch geschätzten jungen englischen Komponist aus den 1930er Jahren. Nach einem schweren Trauma aus dem 2. Weltkrieg litt Lloyds Fähigkeit zu komponieren über viele Jahre sehr. Er nahm einen beruflichen Umweg über die Gärtnerei, um seine Gesundheit wieder herzustellen und sukzessive seine Musikalische Karriere zu rehabilitieren. Die Lektionen, die man aus Lloyds leben lernen kann, sind beschrieben in Relation zu den Methoden, die er benützte, um PTSD zu heilen. Als allgemeine Frage zum kompositorischen Potential werden die therapeutischen Effekte im Licht der neueren kognitiven Neurowissenschaft betrachtet.
Keywords: George Lloyd – Komponist – PTSD – Neurowissenschaft

Español
Cuando el compositor tiene SPT : Examinando la vida de George Lloyd (1919-1998)
Resumen
El stress post traumático (SPT) puede perjudicar las funciones cognitivas , atención , memoria , estado de ánimo , iniciativa , relaciones humanas ,y autoestima . La musicoterapia ha sido usada para ayudar a mejorar algunos de estos problemas. A pesar de que hay literatura sobre música y SPT, hay poca información sobre compositores musicales con SPT , el proceso de recuperación  y las conexiones entre las composiciones , el SPT y las funciones neurocognitivas. Aquí presentamos el caso de George Lloyd , un gran galardonado joven compositor Ingles de 1930. Luego de un trauma severo en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la habilidad de Lloyd para componer se vio alterada por muchos años. Tomo un desvió profesional dedicándose a la jardinería para recuperar su salud y subsecuentemente rehabilitar su carrera musical . La lección que aprendemos de la vida de Lloyd son descriptas ambas en relación a los abordajes que uso para recuperarse de su SPT. Un cuestionamiento más genérico de los efectos potencialmente terapéuticos de la composición serán considerados a las luz de la neurociencia cognitiva actual .
Palabras claves : George Lloyd , compositor , SPT , neurociencia

Traditional Chinese
當作曲家患有創傷後壓力症候群:檢視喬治‧勞埃德的一生(1919-1998)
創傷後壓力症候群(PTSD)會損害認知功能、注意力、記憶力、情緒、主動性、人際關係及自尊。音樂治療已被用來幫助改善其中一些問題。雖然現在已經有關於音樂和創傷後壓力症候群的研究文獻,但是關於患有PTSD的音樂作曲家的資訊仍然很少,像是復原的歷程以及PTSD神經認知功能和作品之間的連結。在這裡所介紹的喬治‧勞埃德(George Lloyd),是一位在1930年代備受推崇的年輕英國作曲家。在第二次世界大戰嚴重創傷後好幾年,勞埃德的創作能力受到很大的影響。他在專業的路上繞道改行從事園藝,直到恢復健康後才繼續音樂作曲家的生涯。文中描述關於從勞埃德的生活中汲取到的經驗都與他用來恢復PTSD的方法有關。本文也將考慮最近的認知神經科學中,一個較為一般性的問題,即作曲的潛在治療效果。

[Korean]
PTSD를 가진 작곡가  George Lloyd의 삶에 대한 조사(1919-1998)
초록
외상후 스트레스 장애(PTSD)는 인지 기능, 주의력, 기억, 기분, 자주성, 인간관계와 자존감을 손상시킬 수 있다. 음악 치료는 이러한 문제들의 개선을 돕는 데 사용되어왔다. 현재까지 음악과 PTSD에 대한 연구들이 보고되고 있으나, PTSD를 가진 음악가-작곡가, 회복 과정, 그리고 작곡, PTSD, 신경 인지 기능 사이에 존재하는 연관관계에 대한 정보는 부족하다. 본 연구에서는 1930년대 가장 존경받던 젊은 영국 작곡가인 George Lloyd를 중심으로 PTSD에 대한 접근을 제시한다. Lloyd는 세계 2차 대전에서 심각한 트라우마를 겪은 후, Lloyd의 작곡 능력은 수년 동안 크게 저하되었다. 그는 자신의 건강을 회복하기 위해 원예로 직종을 변경하였고, 이후 음악 직업으로 복귀하였다. Lloyd가 PTSD에서 회복하기 위해 사용했던 접근법들과 관련해서 그의 삶에서 얻은 교훈들을 기술하였다. 본 연구는 최근 인지 신경 과학에 비추어서 작곡의 잠재적 치료 효과에 대한 보다 보편적 질문에 대한 제안을 보고하였다.

키워드: George Lloyd, 작곡가, PTSD, 신경과학

Japanese 日本語
作曲家がPTSDを持っている場合:ジョージ・ロイド(1919‐1998)の一生を検証する

要旨
心的外傷後ストレス障害 (PTSD) は、認知機能、注意力、記憶、気分、自発力、対人関係そして自尊感情を損なわせる。音楽療法は、これらの問題のいくつかを改善させることができるのである。音楽とPTSDに関する文献は存在するが、PTSDを持つ音楽家および作曲家に関する回復のプロセス、作曲との関連性、そして神経認知的機能とPTSDとの関係などの情報はあまり残されていない。本論では、1930年代からイギリスで若くして高く評価されていたジョージ・ロイドを取り上げる。第二次世界大戦で受けたいくつかのトラウマ以降、ロイドは何年にもわたって作曲活動に苦しむことになった。彼は、市場の作物栽培という職業的回り道をして自身の健康を回復させ、そして次第に音楽的キャリアに向けてリハビリを行っていったのである。ロイドの人生から学んだ事柄として、彼自身がPTSDからの回復を克服したアプローチが記述されている。作曲行為の持つ療法的効果の可能性について、近年の認知神経科学的視点から考察する。
キーワード:ジョージ・ロイド、作曲、PTSD、神経科学

 

Bodywork: Tuning the Instrument of the Soul

Abstract
Instrumental musicians are among groups of professionals who are at high risk for overuse injuries, including pain, fatigue, loss of range of motion, as well as loss of endurance and fine motor control.[i] Factors contributing to overuse injuries include, but are not limited to, ergonomic errors and posture misalignment due to poor fit between instrument and musician, heavy instruments, as well as repetitive strain due to prolonged daily practice and/or performance.[ii] Massage therapy may target musician specific injuries by focusing on relaxing restrictive, overused muscles, enhancing circulation, and improving range of motion by increasing length of fascia and muscles, and breaking down adhesions.[iii]  The following article describes the innovative work of Dorothy Stein who has developed novel approaches in massage therapy that have been applied with musicians of all disciplines.

Keywords: Acupressure, manual therapy, deep-tissue massage, musicians, over-use injury, posture, realignment, Rolfing

German

Bodywork: Tuning the Instrument of the Soul
Körperarbeit: das Stimmen des Instruments der Seele
Abstract
Instrumentalmusiker sind in der Berufsgruppe, die ein hohes Risiko haben, für Verletzung aus Überanstrengung, einschließlich Schmerz, Müdigkeit, Verlust des Bewegungsradius, ebenso wie Verlust von Ausdauer und Kontrolle der Feinmotorik.  i. Fakten die zur Verletzung durch Überbeanspruchung beitragen schließen ein: ergonomische Fehler und falsche Haltungsausrichtung wegen schlechter Passung zwischen Instrument und Musiker, schwere Instrumente, ebenso wie wiederkehrende Anstrengung wegen verlängerten täglicher Übungszeiten u/o Vorstellungen. ii. Therapien durch Massagen zielen auf musikerspezifische Verletzungen, indem sie eingeschränkte überbeanspruchte Muskeln entspannen, die Zirkulation verbessern und durch Verlängern der Faszien und Muskeln und Lösen von Verklebungen den Bewegungsradius erweitern. iii  Der folgende Artikel beschreibt die innovative Arbeit von Dorothy Stein, neuartige Ansätze für eine Massage-Therapie entwickelt hat, die mit Musikern aller Disziplinen angewendet wurden.
Keywords: Akupressur, manuelle Therapie, tiefe Gewebemassage, Musiker, Verletzungen durch Überanstrengung, Haltung, Wiederanpassung, Rolfing.

 

Español
Trabajo Corporal: Afinando el instrumentos del Alma
Resumen
Los músicos instrumentistas están en el grupo de profesionales con más alto riesgo de sufrir lesiones por sobreuso , incluyendo dolor , perdida de rango de movimiento , también perdida de resistencia y control motor fino. Los factores que contribuyen a las lesiones por sobreuso incluyen , pero no están limitadas a , errores ergonómicos , mal alineamiento postural debido a un ajuste pobre entre el música y el instrumento , instrumentos pesados  , y también la tensión repetitiva debido a jornadas prolongadas de practica o/y performance . Los masajes terapéuticos pueden alcanzar las lesiones específicas de los músicos haciendo foco en la relajación restrictiva , músculos con sobreuso , mejorando la circulación , mejorando el rango de movimiento incrementando la longitud de los músculos , y mejorando las adhesiones . El siguiente artículo describe el innovador trabajo de Dorothy Stein que ha desarrollado novedosos abordajes en masajes terapéuticos que han sido aplicados en músicos de todas las disciplinas.

Palabras claves : Acupresión , terapia manual , masaje profundo , lesiones por sobreuso , postura , realineación , Rolfing

Traditional Chinese
Bodywork:為靈魂調音
器樂演奏家是過度使用身體造成傷害的高風險專業族群之一,包括疼痛、疲勞、動作範圍喪失,以及失去持久力與精細動作控制[i]。導致過度使用傷害的因素包括(但不限於)人體工程學的錯誤與樂器和音樂家之間的適配性不佳所造成的姿勢錯位,樂器過於沉重,以及每天因為長時間練習與/或演出造成的重複拉傷[ii]。按摩療法可以針對音樂家特定的損傷,透過放鬆緊繃且過度使用的肌肉,促進循環,以及拉筋和伸展肌肉,拉開沾黏等方式來增進動作範圍。接下來的文章描述了桃樂絲‧史坦創新的方法,她發展出的新式按摩療法已被應用在各類音樂家身上。

[Korean]
바디워크(Bodywork): 영혼이라는 악기 조율하기
초록
기악 연주자들은 통증, 피로, 운동 범위 상실, 지구력 및 소근육 통제 상실 등신체를 과도하게 사용함으로써 발생하는 남용 부상위험이 높은 전문가들 집단에 속한다. 남용 부상에 기여하는 요인들로는 매일하는 긴 연습과 공연으로 인한 반복적인 긴장뿐만 아니라 무거운 악기, 악기와 연주자 사이에 부적합한 핏(fit)으로 인한 자세의 흐트러짐 등이 포함된다. 마사지 치료는 과도한 사용으로 인해 일상에서 사용의 제한을 받게 되는 근육을 이완시키고, 순환을 향상시키고, 근육 및 근막의 길이를 증가시킴으로써 운동 범위를 개선시키는 것, 또한 연주자 특유의 부상 및 유착(adhesion) 없애기 등에 초점을 맞춘다. 본 연구는 모든 분야의 음악가들에게 적용되어온 마사지 치료에서의 새로운 접근법을 개발한 Dorothy Stein의 혁신적인 연구를 설명한다.

Japanese 日本語
ボディーワーク: 魂の楽器を調律する

要旨
楽器を弾く音楽家は、オーバーユース傷害のリスクが高い職業集団に属し、その症状には、痛み、疲労、可動域や耐久性および微細運動機能の喪失などが挙げられる。
I) オーバーユース傷害に引き起こす要素として、楽器と人間のあいだにおける人間工学的な不一致や姿勢のズレ、楽器の重さ、また毎日長時間にわたる練習や演奏からくる反復的な身体負荷、などがある。
II) マッサージセラピーは、音楽家の特徴的な怪我に対して、酷使されこわばった筋肉をリラックスさせ、循環を良くし、筋膜や筋肉を伸ばしながら動きの可動域を拡げ、筋膜の癒着をほぐすことができる。
III) 本論では、すべての音楽家に応用できる新しいマッサージセラピーのアプローチを生み出した、ドロシー・スタインの革新的な仕事を紹介する。

キーワード:指圧療法、整体、深部組織マッサージ、音楽家、オーバーユース傷害、姿勢、再調整、ロルフィングマッサージ法